How long does decadence last?


Question by: Amerigo Bellini | Last updated: December 13, 2021

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The term decadentism refers to an artistic and literary movement that developed in France and then spread to the rest of Europe, between the end of the nineteenth century and the first decade of the twentieth century, which is opposed to the rationality of scientific positivism and naturalism.

What was there before Decadentism?

Futurism, born with Marinetti in 1909, anticipates and flanks Fascism until 1922. It exasperates the irrational side of Decadentism. It exalts violence, war and militarism, nationalism and imperialism.

How does Decadentism manifest itself in Italy?

Historically, Decadentism develops during the second industrial revolution, dominated by new scientific and technological discoveries, European colonialism and the development of strongly nationalistic ideas, based on the myth of the superiority of the race, and on the myth of the good savage.

How was Decadentism born?

Decadentism was born as a reaction to the crisis of Positivism and scientific thought. The distrust of reason, so much exalted before in Positivism, determined in the moral field the crisis of traditional values ​​(freedom, homeland, progress…) generating insecurity, skepticism and a sense of existential anguish.

How does the representation of nature change from Romanticism to Decadentism?

If in Romanticism man has a clear vision of his interiority and the unknown is in the unpredictable reversals of Nature, in Decadentism, the new frontier of knowledge distinguished by the unconscious, it shifts the dimension of mystery from the outside to the inside.

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How is nature viewed in Romanticism?

– A new conception of nature: with Romanticism the conception of the Newtonian world cracks, which saw nature as a machine, the cosmos as a clock and time and space were objective realities, but now the so-called organicistic vision is spreading: the nature is considered an organism …

What are the recurring themes in the literary production of Decadentism?

Taking some instances of Romanticism to the extreme and opposing positivism, this current revolutionizes poetry by focusing on themes such as the irrational, death, corruption (physical and moral), disease.

Where did Decadence originate?

Origin of decadence

In Paris during the 1880s a literary movement was born characterized by an atmosphere of weariness and spiritual exhaustion that was reconnected to the Roman Empire at the end of decadence, a sense of decay and death of a whole civilization.

What are the characteristics of decadent poetic language?

A new style is created; the language becomes allusive, obscure, subjective, based on symbols (synaesthesia, analogy present in “vowels”); The birth of Decadentism, whose greatest exponents are Baudelaire, Verlaine, Rimbaud and Mallarmé in France, Wilde in England, Pascoli and d’Annunzio in Italy.

In what year was Decadentism born?

– Decadentism is an aesthetic-moral theory that arose in France around 1885-1886. Decadent, some poets were called by their adversaries and they of the accusation made themselves a boast and a program.

What is the decadent worldview?

Decadent worldview

The decadent believes that reason and science cannot give knowledge of reality, because its essence is beyond things, mysterious and enigmatic. The decadent soul is always reaching out towards the mystery and the unknowable.

Who were the cursed poets?

Paul Verlaine defined Poets cursed (Poètes maudits) the poets, personally frequented, to whom he dedicated the homonymous work in 1883. They are Tristan Corbière, Stéphane Mallarmé, Arthur Rimbaud, Auguste Villiers de L’Isle-Adam, Marceline Desbordes-Valmore and Pauvre Lelian, pseudonym (and anagram) of Verlaine himself.

What are the two currents of Decadentism?

Decadentism is a literary movement that develops at the end of the nineteenth century and gives rise to currents such as Symbolism and Aesthetics.

What was there before romance?

Among the former were the classical age and the Humanistic-Renaissance period, periods in which man expressed himself to the fullest of his abilities without any mortification. The latter included the Middle Ages and the age of the Counter-Reformation, remembered as dark and obscurantist periods.

What aspects of Pascoli’s poetry make him a typically decadent author?

Pastoli is a typical decadent poet. In fact, the pastures forced against his will has been marginalized from the world and now he cannot understand it, he cannot grasp its meaning. In his poems you can see some lines that are in analogy to this lack of affection that he has had to undergo.

How is the decadent conception of the real reflected on poetic language?

The darkness of the language of decadence

It takes on a suggestive and evocative value. Now the meaning of the words becomes blurred, disappears completely, and the clear images are replaced by the indefinite and imprecise ones. But in this way the poem becomes obscure and bordering on incomprehensibility.

Why is D Annunzio decadent?


D’Annunzio’s Decadentism. The most significant aspects of D’Annunzio’s decadentism are: The artistic aestheticism, that is the conception of poetry and art as creations of beauty, in absolute freedom of motifs and forms, which arose as a reaction to the miseries and “vulgarities” of Verism.

What to know about decadence?

Décadent is a French term, used in France in those times to define, in a derogatory sense, the artists who lived in a scandalous way, between drugs and other excesses. … Hence the term Decadentism will be used to indicate the decadence of the society that no longer has true values ​​and that is disappointing them so much.

Who coined the term Hermeticism?

The term hermeticism derives from Hermes (or Mercury), god of the occult and mysterious sciences, and was used for the first time, in a derogatory sense, by the critic Francesco Flora, who in a 1936 writing entitled Hermetic poetry defined the new poetry of the ‘900 precisely as “hermetic”, or as closed …

Where does symbolism originate?

Symbolism is a cultural movement that developed in France in the nineteenth century and manifested itself in literature, in the visual arts and consequently in music.

Where does hermeticism arise?

Hermeticism Literary current that flourished in Italy, with its epicenter in Florence, around 1930 and notable above all in the field of poetry and criticism, although there was no lack of significant influences on the work of the narrators.

What are the themes of the decadent novel?

2The decadent novel in Europe. To characterize the decadent European novel of the late nineteenth century is, first of all, aestheticism, combined with a great sensitivity towards symbols and the human psyche, investigated, above all, for its mysteries and contradictions.

What are the issues and formal outcomes of decadence?

What are the formal themes and outcomes of Decadentism? It exalts nationalism, the dynamism of history, social Darwinism and favors prose over poetry. It stands as a cornerstone of ancient Latin traditions. It opposes Positivism and exalts irrationality, mystery, aestheticism and symbolism.

Who are the main exponents of Italian decadence?

The most important exponents of this current were Charles Baudelaire, Paul Verlaine, Arthur Rimbaud and Stéphane Mallarmé and, as far as Italy is concerned, Giovanni Pascoli, the symbolist par excellence.

What is the manifesto of Italian Romanticism and what principles are there enunciated?

Romanticism in Italy: The most famous manifesto of Italian Romanticism is the “Half-serious letter of Grisostomo to his son” written by Giovanni Berchet. … Among the writers, Alessandro Manzoni, Silvio Pellico and Giovanni Berchet.


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