Question by: Dr. Damiana Palumbo | Last updated: December 31, 2021
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GOVERNMENT OF MUNICIPALITIES AND ECONOMY – The government of municipalities is a democratic type of government and is the first in the history of Europe. The municipalities organize themselves and use their armies to expand into the surrounding countryside.
How are the municipalities organized?
In the cities, valvassori, land owners and concessionaires, judges and notaries join forces, and establish the Municipality as a sworn and private association (contiuratio), a voluntary association created between members of different social classes in defense of certain prerogatives and interests .
How is the Municipality evolving?
Birth and development of municipalities
Thanks to economic growth, soon even the richest merchants (tycoons) joined the nobles in the exercise of power, giving life to the municipalities. The municipalities soon extended their power to the neighboring territories (the countryside), supplanting the feudal system.
What were the characteristics of the municipalities?
The Municipality was a sworn, free and voluntary association of citizens who were able to govern themselves independently and through their own representatives. To counter this situation, the bourgeoisie coalesced in arts associations. …
What are the three phases in the history of the Municipalities?
The Municipality: consular phase, podesta phase, phase of the people (the “parts”)
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What were the main political phases that the Italian municipalities went through?
The history of the Municipality is characterized by two phases: consular and podestial.
How are the municipalities born?
The Municipalities were born as private associations between citizens (merchants, artisans, free landowners residing in the city, notaries, doctors) who entered into oaths (contiurationes) to affirm their claims against the lords (laymen and ecclesiastics).
What are the characteristics of the medieval town?
medieval municipality Characteristic form of autonomous citizen government that appeared in western Europe. after the year 1000, which developed until it obtained juridical-political recognition from superior authorities (king, emperor) and which in Italy achieved de facto independence.
What are the main aspects that characterize the birth of the Municipality?
The distinctive features of the European municipalities were: – the affirmation of the bourgeois, merchant and artisan class, because the aristocracy remained extraneous to city life; – The limitation of municipal sovereignty to the city walls, because the bourgeoisie never dared to extend its government beyond the city.
How were the municipalities organized in the Middle Ages?
Within the Municipality there was a need for someone who would keep order as the quarrels were frequent, that is, a strong authority and laws to be respected were needed: economic activities had to be controlled and intervened to maintain public order ( the criminals were numerous and it was necessary to administer …
What are the first municipalities born in Italy?
The birth of the first medieval towns
The municipalities originated mainly in northern Italy (Regnum Italiae). They were characterized by the acquisition of a high degree of government autonomy, which was revealed through the appointment of consuls.
Who holds the power in the municipal system?
The Municipality is a state body (city-state) in which forms of political self-government are implemented: it has a republican order, as the source of power lies in the popular assembly. The exercise of self-government is collegial and subject to public controls.
What does the consular phase consist of in the history of the Municipality?
The consular phase is characterized by the hegemony of the magnate class, which is divided into factions that struggle with each other, and by the rise of the bourgeoisie which is strengthened thanks to the corporations and begins to contend for power with the magnate class.
How is a municipality governed?
At the head of the municipality is the mayor, democratically elected through municipal elections with universal suffrage among all municipal citizens with the right to vote (over 18 years of age), with executive powers together with the municipal council, a collegial body composed of a variable number of municipal councilors from him …
How is the municipal administration composed?
The municipal council is composed of the mayor, who presides over it, and a number of councilors, established by the municipal statutes, which must not exceed one third, rounded arithmetically, of the number of municipal councilors, calculating the mayor for this purpose, and in any case not exceeding twelve units.
What does the municipality manage?
The municipality manages the electoral services, marital status, registry office, military service and statistics. 2. The relative functions are exercised by the mayor as an official of the Government, pursuant to article 54.
What was the main cause of the birth of the municipality?
The Municipality was born above all with the task of allowing a kind of self-management of the city. … The Municipality was managed by real councils in which all those citizens who had a certain income and a certain monetary power participated.
How was the Municipality born?
The Municipality, that is the form of autonomous city government, appeared in Western Europe after the year 1000, to satisfy the desire for laws, courts, administrative and political bodies governed by the citizens themselves.
What factors contributed to the birth of the municipality?
the Byzantines reconquered the Mediterranean by driving out the Arabs. This favored the economic development of the Italian coastal cities which became the bridge between Europe and the East. The cities that most owed their fortune to commercial relations were Pisa, Genoa, Venice and Amalfi.
What is the popular municipality?
The popular communes (人民公社, Rénmín gōngshè) constituted a new organizational scheme of the Chinese rural populations in the context of the so-called Great Leap Forward (大跃进, Dàyuèjìn, 1958-1960), promoted by Mao Zedong in order to reach a level development equal to that of the United Kingdom over …
What particular characteristics did the Italian municipality have compared to European cities?
In the municipalities of central and northern Europe, the autonomy of the cities struggled to establish itself and was less extensive than in Italy. The cities were like small islands in a “feudal sea”. … On the contrary, the Italian municipality immediately imposed its power on the surrounding countryside, the countryside, greatly limiting the feudal authority.
What are Municipalities in a nutshell?
This entry or section on political geography does not cite the necessary sources or those present are insufficient. The municipality is the local authority that represents the community, looks after its interests and promotes its development and is endowed with a certain degree of administrative autonomy.
What are the relations between the Swabian emperors and the Municipalities?
With the Peace of Constance, the municipalities undertook to swear loyalty to the emperor who for his part granted them to continue to exercise the regalia, that is, some rights due to the sovereign. In reality, the emperor granted what was requested by the municipalities not because he was generous, but because he had been defeated.
What were the political bodies of the municipalities?
1. The municipal council, the council and the mayor are the governing bodies of the municipality. 2. The powers, functions, composition, attributions, rights, prerogatives, duties of the Bodies are established by the Laws, by this Statute and by the Regulations.
What is the consular municipality?
* Consular municipalities: they were those municipalities in which the municipal council elected magistrates, consuls, who performed a function similar to their namesake of ancient Rome, administering the city for a limited time and under the strict control of the council and its own / comrade (s) in the consulate.
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