Hypotonic solution for hypernatremia?


Question by: Ing. Rita Vitali | Last updated: December 24, 2021

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In patients with hypernatremia and hypovolaemia, particularly in diabetic patients in non-ketotic hyperglycemic coma, 0.45% saline can be administered as an alternative to the combination of 0.9% saline and 5% glucose solution to replenish the sodium and free water.

How is hypernatremia corrected?

Treatment. Hypovolemic hypernatremia: correction of the volume deficit by administering hypotonic saline solutions (or isotonic in the case of severe hypovolemic symptoms) until the symptoms of hypovolemia improve; Removal of the cause.

How to cure high sodium?

Hypernatremia is treated by giving fluids. With the exception of the mild forms, diluted liquids (containing water and a small amount of sodium at a carefully calculated concentration) are administered intravenously in all cases.

When does hypersatremia occur?

Hypernatremia, or hypersatremia, is an electrolyte disorder characterized by a high concentration of sodium in the blood. More precisely, we speak of hypernatremia when the sodium (natrium in Latin) in the blood is found at concentrations above 145 mmol / L.

What does hyponatremia mean?

In hyponatremia, the sodium levels in the blood are too low. Low sodium has many causes, including excessive fluid consumption, kidney failure, heart failure, cirrhosis, and the use of diuretics.

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What happens if there is a lack of sodium in the blood?

When blood sodium concentrations drop further, symptoms deepen and include: headache, seizures, muscle cramps, reflexes slow down and severe sleepiness is felt.

What happens if the blood contains an excess of salts?

When the sodium concentration exceeds the normal range (excess sodium → hypernatremia) there is a more or less significant increase in the volume of blood and interstitial fluid, laying the foundations for creating edema and hypertension.

How to normalize the sodium values ​​in the blood?

Sodium is frequently prescribed to detect abnormal levels in the blood, such as too high (hypernatremia) or too low (hyponatremia) concentrations. It is often performed with the electrolyte or metabolic panel as part of a routine investigation to determine the patient’s general health status.

What is meant by dehydration?

Dehydration is a condition that results when the body loses as much water as it contains. This imbalance disrupts the usual levels of salts and sugars found in the blood, which can interfere with the way the body works.

What Happens When Sodium Is High?

An excess of sodium increases water retention and blood pressure, bringing with it the risk of hypertension and its complications, which can involve the heart, arteries and various organs, compromising their health and that of the body.

How to lower blood potassium levels?

To lower the level of potassium from vegetables and fruit, it is advisable to soak them in warm water for about two hours and then cook them without the peel. This solution helps eliminate excess potassium from food.

How Much Sodium Should Be in the Blood?

Under physiological conditions, the concentration of sodium in the blood (natriemia or sodemia) is maintained at levels between 135 and 145 mmol / L.

Which endocrine diseases are associated with hyponatremia?

This form is essentially due to inappropriate water retention. Examples of diseases associated with this form of hyponatremia are liver cirrhosis, renal failure, congestive heart failure and nephrotic syndrome.

What is the cause of the high potassium?

An increase in potassium can occur in various conditions, including: kidney disease, decompensated diabetes mellitus, hypoaldosteronism and dehydration. Among the most frequent causes of a high potassium in the blood must also be remembered the intake of drugs, such as ACE inhibitors, diuretics and sartans.

What does it mean to have a high hematocrit?

When the hematocrit is high, it means that the blood is denser; this can have repercussions on the heart, which makes it harder to pump it to send it into the circulation. In addition, the greater density of the blood favors the formation of clots, which can predispose to heart attack or stroke.

What is blood chloride?

It is a negatively charged ion which, together with potassium, sodium and bicarbonate, participates in the regulation of the quantity of liquids in the body and in the maintenance of the acid-base balance. Chlorine is present in all biological fluids but is found in high concentrations in the blood and extracellular fluids.

What does it mean to have high chlorine?

Hyperchloremia (excess chlorine in the blood) usually indicates dehydration, which can for example be caused by prolonged diarrhea, which makes normal fluid intake impossible; excessive consumption of salt can also cause dehydration and / or high blood chlorine values.

What to do about sodium deficiency?

Low blood sodium therapy

Reduce your fluid intake. Adjust the dosage of diuretics. Use of medications for symptoms such as: headache, nausea and seizures.

What is blood sodium used for?

What is sodium used for? Sodium regulates the passage of liquids and nutrients inside and outside the cells, plays a fundamental role in maintaining the hydro-saline balance and contributes to the transmission of the nerve impulse as well as to the transport of metabolites.

What to eat with low sodium?

Low-sodium foods

  • water.
  • butter, olive oil and seed oil.
  • coffee, tea, herbal teas and infusions.
  • fresh unprocessed meat, preferably lean (chicken, turkey, veal, horse)
  • cereals, pasta or rice.
  • fresh cheeses (ricotta, mozzarella, etc.)
  • fruit, vegetables, legumes and tubers.

What to eat to lower potassium?

In general, the vegetables allowed in the diet against high potassium include salad, zucchini, asparagus, peppers and cucumbers.

What lowers potassium?

A low potassium level has many causes, but is usually due to vomiting, diarrhea, adrenal gland disease, or the use of diuretics. A low potassium level can cause muscle weakness, cramps, spasms or even paralysis, and heart rhythm disturbances can develop.

What to do if potassium is high?

In case of excessive high potassium values ​​and severe symptoms or renal insufficiency, the remedies will be pharmacological: administration of insulin and glucose which cause the circulating potassium to be reabsorbed by the cells: calcium is also administered intravenously to protect the heart.


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