What does Sella Turcica mean?


Question by: Dr. Audenico Carbone | Last updated: June 19, 2021

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The sella turcica or Turkish saddle constitutes the upper face of the body of the sphenoid bone, an uneven and median bone of the neurocranium. Concave in shape, the sella turcica has on its bottom the pituitary dimple, a recess that houses the pituitary gland, an important endocrine gland.

How do you care for an empty saddle?

How is it treated? Uncomplicated primary ESS does not require any therapy. In the case of CSF rhinorrhea, surgical intervention with catheterization of the intrasellar CSF is required. If signs and symptoms of hypopituitarism occur, hormone replacement therapy is used.

What are the symptoms of a pituitary adenoma?

Symptoms related to the mass effect (macroadenoma)

  • Drowsiness, weakness, dizziness and disorientation;
  • Nausea, vomiting, and unintentional weight loss
  • Loss of pituitary function and hypothalamic dysfunction;
  • Rhinoliquorrhea (infiltration and loss of fluid from the nose);

When is the pituitary gland not functioning well?

Dysfunction of the pituitary gland. Pituitary dysfunctions can be of various types and are usually caused by the development of a benign tumor (adenoma). The tumor can secrete excessive amounts of one or more pituitary hormones or compress healthy cells, causing reduced production of one or more pituitary hormones.

How is a pituitary adenoma treated?

How can pituitary adenoma be treated? Medical therapy is the first choice for the treatment of pituitary adenoma in case of prolactinomas, where dopaminergic drugs (Cabergoline, Bromocriptine…) are successfully used. In other adenomas, medical therapy is a second-line therapy.

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How do you lower prolactin?

To regulate the prolactin values, the gynecologist prescribes an oral therapy based on cabergoline (trade name Dostinex), to be taken once a week for a period that the doctor decides according to the level of prolactin and its effects on the menstrual cycle.

How long does a pituitary adenoma surgery last?

How long does the surgery last

The neurosurgical intervention lasts about 3 hours; in general, intensive care is not necessary and after two or three days, if no complications occur, the patient may be discharged.

What are the hormones produced by the pituitary gland?

There are four hormones secreted by the anterior pituitary that manage the functions of other endocrine glands. These hormones include stimulating hormone (TSH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormones (LH).

What tests should be done to check the pituitary gland?

Laboratory investigations

basal dosage of pituitary tropins: they are tests that allow you to measure hormonal levels in the blood. More or less than normal amounts of these hormones produced by the pituitary gland can be a sign of pituitary adenoma.

When to worry about high prolactin?

Basal levels of PRL higher than 200 ng / ml allow to make an almost certain diagnosis of prolactinoma; there is also a correlation between the PRL value in the blood and the size of the pituitary adenoma, for example PRL values ​​between 100 and 200 ng / ml are more orientative for a microadenoma.

What is pituitary adenoma?

What is a pituitary adenoma? It is a benign tumor originating in the adenohypophysis (fig. 3). Adenomas can be divided into “functioning” (secreting hormones, which cause a hormonal hyperfunction syndrome) and “non-functioning”.

What is an adenoma?

General Adenoma is a benign tumor that originates in a tissue with secretory properties (glands and mucous membranes) and / or that takes on the appearance of a gland.

Where is the pituitary gland located?

The pituitary is located at the base of the skull, and is contained in an area known as the “sella turcica”. It is a gland with internal secretion, or endocrine. The sella turcica is a bony fossa of the body of the sphenoid bone.

What does it mean to have an empty saddle?

Empty saddle or empty saddle is the term used to define a characteristic radiological aspect that the sella turcica, an anatomical structure normally containing the pituitary gland, can assume in certain circumstances, so much so that it appears empty.

What is empty sella syndrome?

In saddle empty syndrome, the sella turcica (bone structure at the base of the brain that contains the pituitary) enlarges, but the pituitary remains normal in size or shrinks in volume.

What is hypopituitarism?

Hypopituitarism is a condition of reduced pituitary function that can lead to a deficiency of one or more pituitary hormones.

What is the pituitary gland connected to?

The pituitary gland is connected to the hypothalamus via the pituitary stalk. Together they form the hypothalamus-pituitary system or axis.

What hormones does the adenohypophysis produce?

It is capable of producing various hormones: growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) target non-endocrine cells, while thyrotropic hormone, adrenocorticotropic and gonadotropes target endocrine organs.

What does the posterior pituitary produce?

The posterior pituitary gland or neurohypophysis functions as a “repository” for the hypothalamic hormones ADH and oxytocin, produced by hypothalamic neurons with their relative body located in the hypothalamus (Supraoptic Nuclei → ADH and Paraventricular → Oxytocin).


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