What does the pap smear detect?


Question by: Dr. Loretta Mariani | Last updated: December 25, 2021

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The Pap test (Papanicolaou test, from the surname of the doctor who invented it) is a screening test, which is carried out even in healthy women without any sign of possible disease. The aim is to detect cervical tumors early or alterations that could become such over the years.

What infections can be seen with the pap smear?

The pap smear is the screening test for cervical cancer. It is used to determine the presence of abnormal or potentially abnormal cells in the vagina or cervix. In this way it is also possible to detect uterine infections due to bacteria, fungi and viruses.

What happens if the pap smear is positive?

Abnormal (positive) Pap test: in the epithelial cells of the cervix taken during the examination it is possible to highlight anomalies, the nature and severity of which are described by purely medical terms, apparently incomprehensible, which we will analyze in the course of the item.

How is a pap smear analyzed?

How the exam takes place

The doctor inserts a small retractor, called a speculum, into the vagina to facilitate the removal. Then, with a special spatula and a cotton swab, it gently collects some cells from the most superficial layers of the cervix and the cervical canal.

When do they call if Pap smear is positive?

If the test is positive, that is, the pap test shows abnormal cells, you will receive a phone call from an obstetrician of the site where the pap test was performed with the proposal of an interview in which the outcome is explained and proposed the appointment for an in-depth examination.

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How long does it take for the pap smear result?

The response time is typically 3 weeks from the time of the exam. This time is used by qualified personnel to formulate a complete response and carry out the necessary quality controls. Approximately around 10 days.

How to recover Pap smear results?

If the Pap test is negative, we will invite you to repeat the HPV test after one year. In fact, we know that most infections disappear spontaneously within 1-2 years. If the Pap test shows alterations or doubts, you will receive a letter to agree on the further diagnostic tests to be carried out.

How many types of pap smears?

There are two types of Pap smears: liquid phase. traditional.

What does red blood cells mean in pap smears?

RBCs are red blood cells found in the blood. The reddish color is given by the presence within them of hemoglobin, a glycoprotein rich in iron and essential for the human body, as it is responsible for the transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide.

What are atypical cells?

Cervical cancer develops slowly. Initially, pre-tumor changes cause the cells lining the inside and outside of the cervix to look different than normal cells. These cells, if present on the pap smear, are referred to as “atypical cells”.

What to do if I am HPV positive?

In cases where the Pap Test is also altered, it is necessary to undergo level 2 tests: colposcopy. It is an outpatient examination that uses an instrument that analyzes the cervix and makes it possible to highlight tissue alterations and, if necessary, perform a biopsy.

How to read HPV report?

How to interpret the HPV DNA Test results

  1. A positive result indicates the presence of HPV DNA of the specific virotype of the Papilloma Virus found among the 28 high and low risk tested.
  2. A negative result indicates the absence of HPV DNA among the 28 high and low risk virotypes tested.

What to do in case of positive papilloma virus?

In the event of a positive outcome of the HPV DNA test, we proceed with a colposcopy, an outpatient procedure that allows you to accurately assess the condition of the vagina and identify any area to be treated, first of all by carrying out a biopsy of the injured tissue to get a diagnosis. definitive.

Can anyone with papilloma virus have intercourse?

No, there is no direct relationship, HPV remains latent for a long time and can clinically manifest itself after many years with genital and / or extragenital lesions; discovering that you have it only means that you have contracted it at some point in your life. 4) “Do genital warts predispose to cancer?”.

How do you know you have a uterus tumor?

Among the red flags that can raise the suspicion of cervical cancer are, for example, abnormal bleeding (after sexual intercourse, between menstrual periods or in menopause), bleeding vaginal discharge or pain during sexual intercourse.

How to see if a man has papilloma virus?

Is there a diagnostic test to tell if a man has HPV? The answer is simple: no, it doesn’t exist. There is no blood test available that can detect the virus. The only way to recognize the virus is to demonstrate the presence of viral DNA inside infected human cells.

What is Parakeratosis?

parakeratosis Alteration of the normal corneification process of the epidermis, whereby the cells of the stratum corneum still retain their nucleus, while the granular layer disappears. The p. it is at the basis of the formation of scales and is therefore observed in many skin diseases, including psoriasis.

What are red blood cells in urine?

Urinary dysfunctions

Hematuria is defined as the presence of red blood cells in the urine which can occur in the presence of a nephrological pathology that therefore affects the kidneys, urological affecting the urinary tract and bladder or in the presence of systemic diseases.

What is polycythemia?

Polycythemia is an increase in the volume of red blood cells in the blood. There are two types: primary polycythemia, directly associated with defects in red blood cell production. secondary polycythemia, which depends on other factors or health problems that affect the production of red blood cells.

What is the difference between HPV and Pap smears?

The HPV test has a higher sensitivity than the Pap test, that is, it is more effective in predicting the possibility of developing lesions that could develop into tumors, but less specific, that is, it also identifies infections that could spontaneously regress.

How do you know if you have papilloma virus?

The related HPV lesions of the cervix are asymptomatic therefore their diagnosis is made with the use of the pap test, to highlight the possible presence of cellular anomalies, and of the HPV-test which, in turn, allows us to highlight the presence of high-risk genotypes.

How do you see if a man has the papilloma virus?

The diagnosis of cytological and / or histological alterations (i.e. of cells or tissues) caused by potentially oncogenic HPV strains, is instead obtained through the execution of the Pap Test or specific tests for the detection of viral DNA.

How much do you pay to get a Pap test?

The test can also be performed privately and the cost is € 25 for the conventional Pap test and € 30 for the liquid phase test.

How to book pap test Tuscany?

online with the health book to book visits and exams (excluding blood tests, only with dematerialized electronic prescription, white prescription); with the Toscana Salute APP. with the OPEN TOSCANA APP. by calling the Cup service telephone single number 055 54 54 54 key 2 (see times and days);

How do you know if you have HPV?

Is there a test to see if I have HPV? Yes. For women it is possible to diagnose HPV infection through the HPV-test: this screening exam reveals if you have come into contact with the virus, and is proposed together with the Pap test which verifies the presence of tumor lesions or pre – cancerous.


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