What is gasification?

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Question by: Samuel Sanna | Last updated: December 8, 2021

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Gasification is a chemical process that allows you to convert carbon-rich material, such as coal, oil or biomass, into carbon monoxide, hydrogen and other gaseous substances.

What causes coal gasification?

In a gasifier the carbonaceous material undergoes several different processes: The pyrolysis process takes place by heating in the absence of oxygen and gaseous substances such as hydrogen and methane are released and carbonization is obtained, with the result of a weight loss greater than 70% for the coal.

What does gasification mean?

It is a thermochemical process in which a solid fuel is transformed into gas, subjecting it to high temperatures (even over 1000 ° C) and controlling the presence of oxygen so that the combustion of the introduced material does not occur.

How does the gasifier work?

Gasifiers exploit molecular dissociation, defined pyrolysis, used to directly convert organic materials into gas, precisely, by heating in the presence of reduced quantities of oxygen: they are completely destroyed by splitting their molecules, generally long carbon chains, into …

What is the difference between gasification and pyrolysis?

A pyrolyser differs from a gasifier in that by working in the absence of oxygen (often a hot flow of an inert gas such as nitrogen is used) it carries out pyrolysis proper, while a gasifier actually works in the presence of small quantities of oxygen even a partial …

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How many products of combustion are there?

Combustion processes can develop gases such as: carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen cyanide, hydrochloric acid, nitrous vapors, phosgene and ammonia.

How does a pyrolysis stove work?

Pyrolysis

It is a thermochemical process that heats the biomass contained in a container to about 300 ° -400 ° degrees. The heating of these biomasses produces heat, gas and biochar or vegetable carbon. This thermochemical process requires the absence of oxygen as an essential condition.

What is syngas used for?

source of hydrogen, for example for the synthesis of ammonia or for the production of electricity using fused carbonate fuel cells.

What is regasification used for?

A regasifier is a plant that allows to bring back a fluid that normally occurs in the form of gas in nature, from the liquid physical state to the gaseous one. … Normally the liquefaction of a gas is carried out to facilitate its transport in tanks, reducing its volume.

How is coal refined?

Pyrolysis and carbonization processes

Conversion by carbonization occurs through pyrolysis or destructive distillation, and produces condensable coal tar, oil and water vapor, non-condensable synthesis gas and a solid residual charcoal.

How is hydrogen produced?

Today about 95% of the hydrogen used on Earth, mostly for industrial use, is obtained from methane reforming or from coal gasification, with processes that generate significant quantities of carbon dioxide emissions but are also currently the cheapest. available.

What is green hydrogen?

What is green hydrogen

It is none other than the green variant of hydrogen, produced with zero environmental impact through the electrolysis of water powered by energy from renewable sources.

Where are the natural gas fields located?

Sources. Natural gas is extracted from mixed oil and gas fields or gas only. The largest known deposits are found in the Persian Gulf (Qatar and Iran), but the country that individually has the largest known reserves is Russia.

How to produce energy from coal?

In electricity production plants, coal is burned to heat the water until it turns it into steam which, when put under pressure, turns a turbine connected to a generator. The mechanical energy of the rotation is thus transformed into electric current.

How was hard coal formed?

Fossil coal is a material derived from the gradual decomposition process of wood and vegetable organic substances in an anaerobic environment (lack of air) at high pressure and temperature, in the presence of specific bacteria. The process of coal formation is called carbonization.

How is coal researched?

Coal is a fossil fuel extracted from underground or open pit mines. It can also be produced artificially. The formation of coal dates back to about 345 million years ago, when a hot and humid climate and a high concentration of CO2 favored the growth of ancient forests.

When and why is the regasification plant used?

As part of the natural gas (NG) production and transport cycle, a regasifier is an industrial plant that allows the product to be returned from the liquid state (LNG) used in maritime transport to the gaseous one useful for land transport and final consumption. .

How is LNG transported?

Once extracted, the natural gas can be liquefied through a specific cooling process (-160 ° C) which involves a significant reduction in volume. … In the liquid state, it can be easily stored and transported, even by sea, thanks to special LNG carriers.

How to liquefy natural gas?

The principle of liquefaction of natural gas consists in cooling it to bring it, at normal atmospheric pressure, to a temperature of about -160 ° Celsius. In this way liquid methane is obtained, often called LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas).

How much energy does it take to get hydrogen?

On average, 50 to 65 kWh of energy are required to produce one kg of hydrogen using the classic method. An ideal water electrolyser with 100% efficiency would consume 39.4 kWh per kg of hydrogen.

How does the reverse flame stove work?

Reverse flame boilers also have the peculiarity of having a fan positioned above the flame, once the fan is turned on, which ensures that the flame recedes and reaches the combustion chamber where gasification takes place.

How does the coal stove work?

Coal burns at higher temperatures than wood or pellets, so the combustion chamber must be built with a more heat-resistant material, such as refractory bricks. Precisely for this reason, as a rule, wood can also be burned in coal stoves, but not vice versa.

What process is pyrolysis?

Pyrolysis (or cracking) is a thermochemical decomposition process of organic materials, by heat and in the complete absence of an oxidizing agent (usually oxygen) which leads to the synthesis of combustible (solid, liquid or gaseous) products.

What are the main products of combustion?

Bread crumbs

  • Carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide is an asphyxiating gas that is produced in large quantities during general fires if there is a high concentration of oxygen. …
  • Hydrogen sulphide. …
  • Sulfur dioxide. …
  • Ammonia. …
  • Hydrogen cyanide. …
  • Hydrochloric acid. …
  • Nitrogen peroxide. …
  • Acrylic aldehyde.

What are the products of combustion?

Combustion is a chemical reaction that involves the oxidation of a fuel by a comburent (which is generally represented by the oxygen present in the air), with the development of heat and electromagnetic radiation, often including light radiation.

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