What is sublimation?


Question from: Dr. Emanuel Palumbo | Last updated: January 11, 2022

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The sublimation of a simple substance or a chemical compound is its phase transition from the solid state to the gaseous state, without passing through the liquid state. In everyday language the opposite process is called “frosting”.

What causes sublimation?

Physical and microscopic causes of sublimation

In order for the sublimation to take place it is necessary that the solid absorb heat; it is therefore an endothermic process, in which the substance considered removes heat from the external environment. … The boiling correspondent for solids does not exist.

What is sublimation for Freud?

Freud formulated the notion of sublimation to try to explain apparently non-sexual activities, such as artistic and scientific. … The inhibition of the drive involves the removal of the sexual drive and its original goal: discharge, satisfaction.

When does sublimation occur?

Sublimation is the passage of a substance from the solid phase to the vapor phase. … Sublimation therefore occurs in those substances in which the vapor pressure equals the value of the atmospheric pressure before reaching the melting temperature.

When does the water sublimate?

In the case of water, the direct passage from the gaseous state to the solid state is called frost and occurs in the case of the formation of frost: on clear nights, if the ground temperature is below 0 ° C, the immediately adjacent layers of air on the ground they cool quickly and the water vapor …

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What is water sublimation?

The sublimation of a simple substance or a chemical compound is its phase transition from the solid state to the gaseous state, without passing through the liquid state. In everyday language the opposite process is called “frosting”.

When does evaporation occur?

Evaporation in fact occurs at any temperature of the liquid between the melting temperature and the boiling temperature; just think of the water that evaporates both when it boils at 100 ° C and when we hang the clothes in the sun on a day when it is 20 ° C.

When does water change from solid to liquid state?

Fusion is the transition of a substance from a solid state to a liquid state. To transform a solid into a liquid it is necessary to supply heat to the substance, keeping its pressure constant; when the solid reaches a certain temperature, the melting process begins.

What are the terms to define the gaseous state?

Description. Formally, a gas is an aeriform whose temperature is higher than the critical temperature; gasses at a temperature below this are said to be in a vapor state.

When does frost occur?

Frosting occurs in nature when the passage of water vapor contained in the atmosphere in the solid state of ice occurs, it is not obvious, it is necessary that the appropriate temperature and pressure conditions are found.

What are the defense mechanisms?

For the developmental period, defense mechanisms can be divided into two groups: primary (immature) and secondary (mature) defense mechanisms. … Primitive mechanisms tend to be “totalitarian”. Conversely, mature (secondary) defense mechanisms develop later.

What Happens When Iodine Sublimates?

Iodine sublimates to form purple vapors, and frost on the bottom of the watch glass, forming dark purple crystals.

What is the Frost caused by?

Frosting is the direct passage of a substance from the gaseous state to the solid state without passing through the liquid state; this transformation occurs with heat transfer and is therefore an exothermic process.

What happens when a liquid is heated?

When a liquid heats up, bubbles of vapor are formed inside with pressure equal to that of the saturated vapor of the liquid. As long as the pressure of the bubbles is lower than atmospheric pressure, they do not grow or remain invisible.

What physical states are involved in sublimation?

Vaporization and condensation are changes of state that concern the liquid and the gaseous state; in particular, there is vaporization when a substance in the liquid state passes to the gaseous one, and condensation when a gas passes to the liquid phase.

How is sublimation done?

Technically, sublimation occurs when the ink printed on the paper, through a dedicated press, is transferred onto the fabric and passes directly from the solid to the gaseous state, instantly.

When is matter in a gaseous state?

a matter in the gaseous state has neither volume nor shape of its own, but expands until it occupies all the available space.

When does water become liquid?

Water exists in three states: solid, down to 0 ° C, liquid, at room temperature, or gaseous, above 100 ° C.

When water changes to a solid state, does it increase in volume?

solidifying water increases in volume; this is due to the fact that the molecules are stably arranged in a lattice of crystals according to a hexagonal geometric structure, in which the spaces between molecule and molecule are approximately 8.7% greater than those between molecules in the liquid state.

What is the transition from solid to gas called?

Sublimation: the transition from the solid to the gaseous state.

What factors favor evaporation?

Evaporation is a direct function of the temperature and an inverse function of the vapor pressure (relative humidity) of the environment: as the temperature increases, the evaporating flow increases and when the environment is saturated, equilibrium is reached, i.e. for each molecule that evaporates in a given interval of …

How does evaporation work?

Evaporation refers to the passage of a body from the liquid state to the vapor state; this transformation takes place with the acquisition of heat and is therefore an endothermic process. … Evaporation is the passage of a substance from the liquid phase to the vapor phase.

When a substance evaporates can it do so?

Evaporation is the transition from liquid to vapor which occurs slowly and regularly and affects only the surface layers of the liquid. The surface particles of the liquid, less bound than the internal ones, can leave the liquid and turn into vapor.

How does sublimation printing work?

Technically, sublimation occurs when the ink, thanks to the temperature and pressure given by a dedicated press, passes directly from the solid to the gaseous state, instantly, and is transferred to the fabric which absorbs the color in its fibers.

Why does ice make smoke?

Dry ice is nothing more than carbon dioxide (CO2) cooled to extremely low temperatures (at least -78.5 ° C) to reach the solid state. At room temperature, the CO2 returns to its gaseous state by sublimation, creating the fog or smoke effect.


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