What is the parathyroid?


Question by: Ludovico Palmieri | Last updated: October 26, 2021

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The parathyroid glands are small, oval-shaped structures found near the thyroid gland. 85% of patients have 4 glands, with 2 upper and 2 lower. The parathyroid glands maintain adequate levels of calcium and phosphorus in the body by deactivating or activating the secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH).

How to cure the parathyroid?

The definitive treatment for primary hyperparathyroidism is surgery to remove the pathological parathyroid gland (parathyroidectomy). This is indicated in the case of particularly high levels of calcium or in the event of the onset of symptoms of hyperparathyroidism (osteoporosis, kidney stones, etc.).

How do you lower your parathyroid hormone?

Pharmacological treatment. Pharmacological treatment in secondary hyperparathyroidism aims to lower hypercalcemia: by increasing the elimination of calcium in the urine; decreasing bone resorption.

How long does parathyroid surgery last?

The particularly small skin incision and limited hyperextension of the neck during surgery significantly reduce post-operative pain. MIVAP has an average duration of 20 minutes, with a hospital stay of 3 days.

What does parathyroid hormone do?

The parathyroid hormone (PHT) is a hormone produced by the parathyroid glands, so called because they are located in contiguity with the thyroid gland, and basically serves to regulate the amount of calcium circulating in the blood.

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What does it mean to have high PTH?

If the PTH levels are high, it could be hyperparathyroidism, usually caused by a benign parathyroid tumor, or simply an insufficient presence of calcium in the blood.

What does hyperparathyroidism mean?

Hyperparathyroidism is a condition characterized by an excess of parathyroid hormone (parathyroid hormone – PTH) in the blood. PTH is produced by the parathyroid glands, four glands located posterior to the thyroid.

How is the surgery on the parathyroid glands?

The surgery is performed under general anesthesia. Through a small incision on the anterior side of the neck, it is possible to reach the pathological parathyroid (previously localized with instrumental tests: ultrasound of the neck and scintigraphy) and perform its removal.

When to operate parathyroid gland?

The removal of the parathyroid glands is necessary in cases of: primary hyperparathyroidism; secondary hyperparathyroidism; tertiary hyperparathyroidism.

Why are the parathyroid glands removed?

Through parathyroidectomy it is possible to obtain a normalization of the levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH – the hormone released by the parathyroid glands) and consequently the reduction of calcium levels in the blood, with consequent resolution of the symptoms of hyperpartyroidism.

How is hypercalcemia treated?

Acute hypercalcaemia should be treated with an intravenous infusion of sodium chloride (0.9%), to correct dehydration; in cases of severity, the administration of drugs useful for inhibiting bone mobilization, such as bisphosphonates and pamidronic acid, is conceivable: these drugs exert their activity …

Who Makes Calcitonin?

Calcitonin is a polypeptide hormone produced by the parafollicular cells (C cells) of the thyroid. Therefore, a tumor originating from these cells, ie medullary thyroid carcinoma (CMT), is usually characterized by the presence of elevated calcitonin values ​​in the blood (hypercalcitoninemia).

What is the intact molecule parathyroid hormone?

The so-called intact PTH is the most frequently requested test for parathyroid hormone. This test is required to help diagnose the cause of high or low calcium levels and for the differential diagnosis between parathyroid and non-parathyroid causes.

Where to cure the thyroid gland?


  • MILAN – San Raffaele Hospital. …
  • ROMA-Endocrine Surgery-Gemini. …
  • MILAN – Polyclinic. …
  • MILAN – Italian Auxological Institute. …
  • PISA – University Hospital. …
  • SIENA – University Hospital. …
  • MESSINA – Pediatric Clinic. …
  • VARESE – Circolo Hospital.

What are the normal values ​​of parathyroid hormone?

The reference range also varies according to the laboratory performing the test but, in any case, on average, we speak of high values ​​when they are above 7 pmol / L (or 70 pg / mL), considering the range as normal between 1-7 pmol / L (or 10-70 pg / mL).

When the thyroid is removed, are the parathyroid glands removed as well?

Following removal of the entire thyroid gland (total thyroidectomy), temporary inactivity of the parathyroid glands occurs in 10-20% of patients, which normally regresses spontaneously. Other times it is necessary to take a therapy with calcium and vitamin D derivatives.

Which surgeon operates the thyroid gland?

To investigate the proper functioning of the thyroid, the endocrinologist will rely on specific laboratory tests, on instrumental investigations aimed at defining the shape and size of the gland (such as ultrasound, scintigraphy, cytological examination of fine thyroid aspirate, any CT or magnetic resonance presence or not …

What to eat after surgery?

We can generally recommend:

  • drink at least 2 liters of water per day.
  • pasta or rice or bread.
  • reduced fat yogurt.
  • white meat preferably grilled or boiled or oven or steamed.
  • fish but not fried fish (boiled or steamed)
  • vegetables dressed with a little olive oil.

What to do after total thyroidectomy?

Practical advice after thyroidectomy. For thyroidectomy operations, hospitalization for 1-2 days is foreseen, drainage removal after 1-2 days, stitch removal after 7 days. After the operation, the operated subject will be able to move the neck freely.

What is parathyroid scintigraphy used for?

This examination allows to identify the presence of parathyroid adenomas or hyperplasia, in the presence of hyperparathyroidism.

Which of the following pathologies can be induced by an excessive production of parathyroid hormone?

Hyperparathyroidism consists in the excessive production of parathyroid hormone (PTH) by the parathyroid glands and consequent hypercalcemia. This condition can lead to severe bone, kidney, muscle, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular and mood disorders.

How do the parathyroid glands behave if the calcium concentration in the blood becomes too high?

A high level of calcium can result from a problem with the parathyroid glands, as well as from a diet, a tumor, or a disorder affecting the bones. At first, digestive problems, thirst and profuse diuresis appear, but in severe forms, hypercalcemia causes confusion and eventually coma.

What is primary hyperparathyroidism?

Primary hyperparathyroidism is the most frequent pathology of the parathyroid glands and is caused by excessive PTH secretion by a single parathyroid adenoma in most cases, more rarely by multiple adenomas or carcinomas of the parathyroid glands, resulting in hypercalcemia.

What stimulates calcitonin?

Calcitonin is a peptide hormone produced by the C cells of the thyroid. The secretion of this protein in the blood is stimulated by the increase in blood calcium. The main biological effect of calcitonin is to reduce calcium by inhibiting osteoclastic bone resorption.

Which gland produces calcitonin antagonist hormone?

Calcitonin is the parathyroid antagonist and is also produced in the parathyroid glands. The production and secretion of calcitonin is stimulated by high levels of calcium and causes the calcium levels in the blood to decrease. Calcitonin inhibits osteoclastic activity.


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