What is the plague of marmots?


Question by: Ing. Baldassarre Fabbri | Last updated: September 25, 2021

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It is the causative agent of the plague: it is a zoonosis (of mice, rats, squirrels, rabbits, hares, marmots ..) whose transmission occurs through fleas (which regurgitate the bacterial content at the next meal). The animal is pestigenic and pestiferous.

What is the plague bacillus called?

Plague is an infectious disease of bacterial origin still widespread in many parts of the world, even in some regions of industrialized countries. It is caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, which normally hosts the parasitic fleas of rodents, rats, some species of squirrels, prairie dogs.

How is the plague transmitted from man to man?

Plague is transmitted from animals to humans through fleas. Rodents are the reservoir of infection for the disease. The plague is also transmitted from human to human via the respiratory route. Diagnosis is based on isolating the bacterium from the bubo, blood, sputum, or serum.

What are the symptoms of the plague?

Bubonic plague is the most frequent. After an incubation period of 2-6 days, the disease presents with flu-like symptoms: widespread muscle aches, weakness, fever (39.5-41 ° C), chills, headache, nausea, and intestinal upset.

What was the plague?

Plague is an infectious disease caused by a bacterium called Yersinia pestis. It is an animal disease that can be transmitted to humans (zoonosis). Transmission occurs in most cases through flea or lice bites hosted by infected rats or pets.

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How did the plague sufferers get treated?

It can be cured by administering antibiotics: streptomycin and tetracycline. Currently the plague has disappeared in developed countries and yes … Yes, today the plague would no longer be a problem. It can be cured by administering antibiotics: streptomycin and tetracycline.

How do you die of the plague?

If not treated promptly, the pulmonary form is fatal in almost all cases. Pneumonic plague is transmissible even without the action of fleas, by air: through, that is, coughing and sneezing of infected people, containing infected material in aerosols that could infect a next guest.

What were the symptoms of the plague in the East?

The most frequent symptoms are high fever, headache, joint pain, nausea and vomiting, in addition to the aforementioned buboes; in the most advanced states lethargy, hypotension and dyspnea appear which give the patient a dark color, hence the name black plague; death occurs in a few days.

What year was the plague?

The plague made its appearance in Europe in Caffa (Crimea), at the end of 1347. There it had come from the regions of Mongolia and the Gobi desert, where for 20 years it had already been claiming numerous victims.

How is leprosy spread?

Leprosy, or Hansen’s disease, is caused by Mycobacterium leprae, a slowly growing bacterium with an incubation period ranging from 5 to 20 years. It is transmitted, explains WHO, via the saliva and nasal mucus of patients with the disease at a very advanced stage, but is not considered very infectious.

How is Covid transmitted?


However, in the case of Coronaviruses, contact with the infected person must be close (family members and cohabitants who spend several hours in the same rooms with the patient and at a distance of less than one meter or health workers) for the disease to spread.

What is the bubonic plague?

(Bubonic Plague; Plague; Black Death)

The plague is caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Yersinia pestis. Symptoms are those of severe pneumonia or massive lymphadenopathy with high fever, which often progresses to septicemia. The diagnosis is epidemiological and clinical, confirmed by culture and serological tests.

What is the plague bacterium made of?

Yersinia pestis (Lehmann-Neumann, 1896) is the bacterium that is the causative agent of the plague. It is a gram-negative rod-shaped coco-bacillus without spores, belonging to the Yersiniaceae family, immobile and psychrophilic, i.e. capable of growing and multiplying at temperatures between 0 ° C and 20 ° C.

Who Discovered the Plague Bacillus?

Alexandre Yersin (1863-1943) was one of Louis Pasteur’s first group of researchers. The story of the man who discovered the plague bacillus is now told in a book by French writer Patrick Deville. Behind him he left only two Latin terms: Yersinia pestis.

Why is the plague called the Black Death?

These buboes can later produce pus and tear, releasing the pyogenic material. And it was precisely this type of plague that developed in the fourteenth century and was called the Black Death due to the purplish color of the skin, due to Cyanosis in the terminal moment of the disease.

What are the symptoms of the plague in the East and in the West?

The terrible plague that struck both East and West in the fourteenth century is therefore not identified by the name, interchangeable with an epidemic, but by the visible symptoms described by contemporaries: painful buboes in the armpits, groin and neck, dark and livid spots (hence black plague), vomiting, convulsions, …

What are the plague doctors called?

Ambroise Pare and Paracelros were famous plague doctors in Medieval Europe. he was an Italian black plague doctor, who practiced in the Italian city of Pavia from 1479. Ventura was a qualified doctor, as he had a degree in medicine.

How was the plague treated in 1600?

Among the many miraculous specialties, there was that of crushing together arsenic, carnations, saffron, ginger and rue, putting them in a bag to be worn over the shirt on the side of the heart. This was a sure way to protect oneself from the disease! A mention also to the use of the protection of thaumaturgic saints.

How long does the plague bacterium live?

However, the infection is favored by the fact that fleas survive about thirty days even in the absence of symbiosis with an animal that hosts them and during this period they can certainly hit humans through clothes, rags, beds and cracks.

Where were the plague sufferers brought?

Sick men and women were taken to the island of the Lazzaretto Vecchio; the people who had been in contact with the plague victims were instead transferred to that of the Lazzaretto Nuovo for more than twenty days as a precaution.

How were diseases treated in the past?

They were fought with garlic, already known 30 centuries BC. Against the cold and the flu they made fumenti, that is, a plant called helichrysum was burned in a basin and also thyme, smoke was sucked under a towel.

Why did plague doctors wear masks with a curved beak?

In the 17th century, people believed in the mask’s ability to purify poisoned air. They were wrong. During the 17th-century European plague, doctors wore beaked masks, leather gloves, and long coats in an attempt to fend off the disease.

How is Covid transmitted with the mask?

Contagion occurs if the infected droplets are inhaled or come into contact with the mucous membranes of the recipient individual.

How do people in close contact get infected with the new coronavirus?

A low-risk close contact is a person who has had only casual contact (contacts occurring at a physical distance of at least two meters with the mask, both outdoors and indoors) with the confirmed case of COVID-19.


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